insect Repellents HOW REPELLENTS WORK
Posted 29 December 2008 - 07:48 PM
There are two main repellents that are recommended and are the only chemicals approved for use in the DoD protection system. When used together, they provide nearly 100% protection from ticks, mosquitoes, chiggers, fleas and other marauding insects.
Deet (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide): Deet is by far the most commonly used insect repellent worldwide. This is because it is the most effective repellent against mosquitoes, ticks and other biting insects. After researching hundreds of compounds, deet was selected by the USDA and the US Military as the safest and most economical. Deet repellents work by evaporation, creating a shield a few inches above the area of application. The presence of the repellent vapor confuses insects so they can’t locate a target host. In most cases it usually requires less than 1% of the repellent to form this protective barrier. It is the combination of this "evaporation delivery system", and the base repellent you choose that determines how much repellent you must apply. Different technologies used in making repellents will determine the initial application and re-application required for basis protection. Another consideration must also include the insect you're trying to repel.
Permethrin: Although known as a repellent, permethrin is actually a contact insecticide. That is, it kills ticks or other insects that come in contact with it. Permethrin is considered ideal because it is applied to clothing, gear, mosquito nets and bedding and is not applied directly on the body. When applied to clothing and equipment, permethrin is very effective at reducing the mosquito population in your campsite or sleeping quarters by killing mosquitoes that "hang around" camp and land on things. Where ticks are a concern, permethrin on clothing or gear will kill ticks that travel across as little as 10" of treated fabric. Spray applications of permethrin remain effective up several weeks and through weekly washings. Dip applications can remain effective even longer. Permethrin is harmless to skin and is used extensively in other formulas for treatment of head lice.
R-326 (Di-n-propyl Isocinchomeronate): R-326 is the most effective insect repellent against flies, gnats, no-see-ums, and similar pesky insects. R-326 is far more effective than deet against these insects and R-326 only needs to be present in small quantities.
MGK-264 (N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide): MGK 264 is both a mosquito repellent and a synergist. As a synergist, MGK 264 both repels mosquitoes and helps the deet to do an even better job of repelling mosquitoes than it would by itself. The MGK 264molecule is much larger than the deet molecule in size and thus not absorbed well by the skin.
Here are sites for different repellents
Select the right repellent for what's bugging you!
for tree huggers
GUIDELINES FOR SAFE APPLICATION
Follow these guidelines when using insect repellents containing DEET
• Verify that the product has an EPA registration number; its presence on the label means the product was approved for use by the EPA.
• Before using any product, read and understand the directions on its label.
• Do not spray a repellent in an enclosed area or near food, and do not inhale aerosol formulations.
• According to the AAP, DEET should not be used on infants under two months of age. Other guidelines recommend not using DEET until children are two years of age.
• Use just enough repellent to lightly cover exposed skin and clothing. Never apply repellents to cuts,
wounds, or inflamed and irritated skin. Do not saturate the skin or apply beneath clothing.
• To apply a repellent to your face, first dispense or spray it onto your palms and rub your hands together. Then apply a thin layer to the surface of your skin. Do not place repellent in your eyes or mouth.
• Do not allow children to apply DEET by themselves. Do not apply a repellent directly to a child’s skin. First apply it to the palms of your own hands and then apply it to the child. Do not apply repellent to children’s hands because they may touch their eyes and mouth, causing irritation.
• DEET can damage plastics, synthetic fabrics, leather, and painted or varnished materials. DEET does not damage natural fibers, such as cotton or wool.
• After applying a repellent, wipe or wash it from your hands.
• A single application of a repellent is sufficient under most conditions. Avoid prolonged or excessive use of DEET.
• If a sunscreen product is needed, it should be applied first, followed by a DEET repellent product. The CDC does not recommend using a combination sunscreen/DEET product.
• Once indoors, wash all treated skin and clothing with soap and water. Wash treated clothing before wearing it again.
• If you suspect that you or your child is reacting negatively to an insect repellent, discontinue its
use, wash treated skin, and call the National Poison Center at 1-800-222-1222. If you must see a doctor, take the repellent with you, as the label will provide the doctor with additional medical information. A very small segment of the population may be sensitive to DEET and/or other insect repellents. For more information about DEET, contact the National Pesticide Information
Center at 1-800-858-7378 or visit their Web site at http://npic.orst.edu/ or contact your health care provider.
• Treat clothing only; do not apply to skin. If you accidentally get the product on your skin, immediately wash with soap and water.
• Apply to clothing in a well-ventilated outdoor area protected from wind.
• Only spray permethrin repellents on the outer surface of clothing and shoes before you wear them; do not apply to clothing while it is being worn.
• Only spray enough product to lightly moisten the outer surface of the fabric, causing a slight color change or darkening; do not saturate clothing. Do not exceed recommended spraying times. Pay special attention while treating socks, trouser cuffs, and shirt cuffs to ensure proper coverage.
• Hang treated clothing outdoors and allow them to dry for at least two hours (four hours under humid conditions) before wearing.
• Do not treat clothing more than once every two weeks. Launder treated clothing separately from other clothing at least once before retreating.
• Keep treated clothes in a separate bag.
Posted 31 December 2008 - 11:37 PM
Posted 04 January 2009 - 12:21 AM
Posted 07 January 2009 - 03:05 PM
Posted 22 March 2009 - 01:40 AM
Therm a Cell replant heaters. The fumes are toxic and can give you a head ache if directly inhaled, but being its not intended for that, just don't inhale. I use them even today. The current run application is a bit more user friendly and of coarse environmentally sound. Doesn't do a lot for ticks, but it is odorless to us, and for most animals.
Best part is it keeps away the biting flies.
Here is a link to the company site. Initial tests were done with different equipment than you can buy now. I would have to say its much easier to use, and they work wonders.
This post has been edited by Wolftalon: 22 March 2009 - 01:52 AM